PLOS: Pragmatic Language Observation Scale Phyllis Newcomer, Donald D. Hammill

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Ages: 8-0 to 17-11
Testing Time: 5-10 minutes
Administration: Individual

The Pragmatic Language Observation Scale (PLOS) is a 30-item, norm-referenced teachers’ rating scale that can be used to assess students’ daily classroom spoken language behaviors. The PLOS is normed on a sample of 994 persons in 15 states and has proven reliability and validity (including evidence of sensitivity and specificity). Its items relate to specific spoken language behaviors readily seen in instructional settings (e.g., “pays attention to oral instructions,” “expresses thoughts clearly”). Teachers or other knowledgeable professionals rate the items on a 5-point scale. The PLOS can be used to (a) support a referral, (b) expand the scope of a comprehensive spoken language evaluation, (c) compare teachers’ ratings with test results, (d) help plan interventions, and (e) monitor the effectiveness of interventions. Results are particularly useful when used as part of a comprehensive spoken language evaluation or as a pre-referral/referral tool.


  • Examiner’s Manual
  • 50 Summary/Rating Forms
  • all in an organized folder. (©2009)